The application, integration, and implementation of sustainable development, in the form of filter media and pervious pavement techniques, have not become a regular practice in stormwater design due to limited accessibility, minimal public knowledge, initial expense, and lack of regulations in place to mandate these practices or discharge requirements. Regulatory agencies in the state of Florida are in the process of developing stormwater rules to implement these sustainable development practices. The environmental focus of most newly constructed or retrofitted drainage systems is pollutants such as hydrocarbons, metals, and nutrients, all of which may bind to particulate matter, also a pollutant of concern. Because phosphorus has adsorptive properties, which allow chemical uptake to be successful, sustainable practices and research would benefit from focusing on removal of this nutrient from stormwater.
Pervious pavement systems allow for stormwater infiltration/percolation through pavement while improving water quality by physical and possibly chemical removal. There are three types of pervious pavement systems, pervious asphalt, pervious concrete, and permeable pavers. Pervious asphalt and concrete are stronger than permeable pavers and should be implemented on roads that bear weight or parking lots, where permeable pavers are more aesthetically pleasing and should be used in walkways. The city of Tampa, Fl implemented pervious pavement on the cross-town expressway, and found less than 20% of rainfall over pervious pavement was converted to runoff.
Pervious pavement is effective in areas with sandy soils and flatter slopes to allow for infiltration. Because biological treatment of stormwater can be timely, chemical removal by pervious pavement with adsorptive properties may be very effective. Although studies on pervious pavement performance have been inconsistent, Florida pervious pavement trials have been proven successful. The limitations of pervious pavement are that the pavement must be maintained by vacuum or water jet, due to clogging.